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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Surgery

What is ACL?

The bone structure of the knee joint includes the patella, tibia and femur. One of the four main ligaments that join the femur and the tibia is known as ACL. It is one of the most commonly inured of the knee ligaments. The risk of ACL injury is higher in people who are involved in high risk sports like football, basketball, skiing and soccer. Almost 50% of these injuries are in combination with some damage to the articular cartilage, meniscus or other ligaments and the patient may also have bruises on the bone under the cartilage surface.

ACL Jnjury

Why ACL Surgery is Done?

Sometimes if the injury is not so severe the doctor may attempt to manage it with non surgical treatment methods like progressive physical therapy and Rehabilitation require to restore the knee to something close to its pre injury condition. However, many times people who opt for non surgical treatment experience secondary injury to the knee due to repeated episodes of instability. This is the reason that surgery is advised and especially so in case of combined injuries where there are ACL tears in combination with injuries to other parts of the knee joint.

Causes of ACL Injury

According to an estimate 70% of ACL injuries are due to non contact mechanisms and 30% are due to direct contact with another object or player. The occurrence of the injury is often due to deceleration combined with pivoting, cutting or sidestepping maneuvers out of control play or awkward landings. According to some studies in some sports there is a higher occurrence of injury in female players than in male players. It is supposed that this may be due to different types of physical conditioning, muscular strength and neuromuscular control.

Usually there is pain and swelling immediately after the injury has occurred and there is a feeling of instability in the knee. Within a few hours there may be major swelling in the knee, loss of full range of motion, tenderness or pain along the line of the joint and trouble with walking.

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How to Prepare for ACL Surgery?

ACL injuries can make most people nervous and the idea of a major surgery is even scarier. The best way to allay your fears is to arm yourself with as much information as you can regarding the procedure. This enables you to choose the right surgeon the proper graft and the proper approach for the entire process.

How ACL Reconstruction is Performed?

It is not usually possible to repair ACL tears with the help of sutures to sew it back together because even if ACLs are repaired they fail over a period of time. Hence the damaged ACL is usually replaced by a substitute graft made of tendon. The grafts commonly used to replace the ACL include:

  • Patellar tendon autograft
  • Quadriceps tendon autograft
  • Hamstring tendon autograft
  • Allograft

Non Surgical Treatments

The non surgical treatments for injured ACL are a combination of progressive physical therapy and rehabilitation. A fair state of normalcy can be achieved in cases of less severe injuries and with the use of a knee cap.

Non surgical treatment is recommended in cases where:

  • There are partial tears and no instability
  • Where there is complete tear with no symptoms of instability in the knee during low demand sports, but the person will have to give up high demand sports
  • For people who live a sedentary life or do light manual work
  • Children in whom growth plates are still open

Risks Involved

  • Infection
  • Viral transmission
  • Bleeding and numbness
  • Blood clotting
  • Instability
  • Stiffness
  • Failure of extensor mechanism
  • Growth plate injury
  • Knee pain

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Connect with IndianMedTrip for Affordable ACL  Treatment In India

IndianMedTrip is an established medical tourism company which acts as a go between the various medical facilities in India and the patients especially those who come to India from foreign countries for medical treatment. It is a well known fact that world class medical treatment in India is available at very low costs and we help the patients to find affordable treatment options which are suitable for their requirements.


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