The primal cause of any Spondylosis is related with age. Other causes include hypermobility of a joint causing spinal stenosis along with genetic factors. Lifestyle patterns play crucial role as smoking leads to faster degeneration of bones with decreasing the water content in them.
Notable symptoms arising in Spondylosis are as follows:
In case of Cervical Spine Spondylosis:
Generally, medications and therapeutic activities help deal with the related discomfort. Bracing can also be used as a temporary relief. However, in cases of spinal stenosis, bladder or neurological impairment and spinal instability, surgery is a compulsion which in most cases provides successful results.
Surgical procedures for Spondylosis comprise two major aspects:
Fusion of the spine to ensure movement and removal of that causing the pain & the decompression method where the tissues exert strain on the nerves is removed.
At times, both the fusion and the decompression procedures are utilized for effective results.
Decompression methods for Spondylosis involve:
Just like the foraminotomy, a laminotomy makes a larger opening in the plate region to protect the lamina. All these procedures are made from the posterior of the spinal region, while in certain cases, the doctor might have to execute decompression from the anterior portion.
One key anterior technique is Corpectomy where a fragmented portion of the vertebral body is removed as bone spurs between spinal body and the cord might pressurize the nerves between them. After this kind of surgery, the spine needs to be supported for better balance to avoid any neurological injury.
Fusion is widely used for providing balance to the spinal canal with a modern approach to the spine through the sacrum done via the L5-S1 mode. In fusion, a bone graft is often fused with the spine to enhance stabilization. Instrumentation is also practiced using rods, screw to strengthen bones after fusion. These methods promote persistent stability for the spine. Apart from fusion, other available stabilization ways are:
Interspinous Process Decompression: An advanced spinal implant where a surgical device is fixed between the spine to lessen the exertion of pressure on nerves and thus minify discomfort. This ensures to maintain spinal stiffness.
Dynamic Stabilization: Spinal implants are attached to the stem of the vertebrae to facilitate more stability for the spinal canal.
Generally, the risk factor is not vital but in certain situations may lead to a spinal injury with a deterioration of the bony fusion. A breakage in the implanted instrumentation can also occur resulting in pain and inflammation, causing urinary problems. Nevertheless, conditions accelerating the risk factor include smoking, diabetes, obesity, different prior fusions, arthritis and thinning of bones (osteoporosis), and must be taken proper care of.
Due to the many major drawbacks of the traditional Spondylosis surgery approach inclusive of larger incisions with long recovery periods led to the introduction of the minimally invasive spine surgery (MIS) to stabilize the spinal joints and to relieve nerves of muscular strain. This method of surgery is also faster, safer with quick recovery. The other possible benefits arising from the smaller incision and reduced pain involves less loss of blood during surgery, minimized risk of muscle damage with reduced chances of risk. Some surgeries use local anesthesia that minifies harmful reactions.
Conducting the surgery through a tubular retractor:
This procedure dilates the soft tissues with the surgeon operating through the incision with the help of an endoscopic tube. Sometimes, instrumentation also follows depending on the condition to facilitate fusion and strengthen the spine.
In lumbar spine surgery, a tubular retractor is utilized which is inserted from the side of the body. For thoracic spine surgery, surgery is facilitated by the conduction of multiple small openings.
Spinal discs which serve to relax the vertebral bones are also used in the process of Discectomy. In cases of spinal stenosis where the spinal column abnormally narrows resulting in the weakening of the muscles, decompressive procedures (laminectomy and foraminotomy) can be used.
Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion approach is executed in patients with acute and degenerative cases of spinal problems resulting in complete inflexibility of the cord.
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