Scoliosis is a medical condition that causes an abnormal curvature of the backbone. A person’s spine is curved from sideways in this disorder. This is a complex three-dimensional disfigurement, on an x-ray observed from the rear, the spine of a patient with scoliosis may appear as S or C shaped figure than a straight line. Scoliosis is commonly classified as either congenital, due to vertebral irregularities present at birth of an individual, idiopathic cause is unknown, sub-classified as juvenile or adult, or neuromuscular when developed as a peripheral symptom of another condition, such as cerebral palsy, or physical trauma. Scoliosis surgery is one of the most complicated orthopedic procedures performed on patients to correct the condition of scoliosis. Scoliosis is best treated when found early and can also be easily detected during routine screening.
There are various types of scoliosis. They are defined and named according to the age factor, cause and spinal curvature. Basic types of scoliosis include the following.
Scoliosis can also be categorized on the basis of the spinal curvature.
Best possible causes of scoliosis are enumerated below.
There are no exact symptoms of scoliosis, but the following symptoms are only those associated with the curved spine.
Most of the children with scoliosis have mild curves and usually, they don’t need any kind of treatment. In such cases, doctor will suggest regular follow-ups every 4 to 5 months to monitor curvature of the spine in hospital and periodically with X-rays. A person’s gender, curve position and severity of curvature are essential factors when deciding on treatment. The following treatments are available for scoliosis.
Casting is commonly used for infantile scoliosis to aid infant’s spine to return to its normal position. This can be achieved with a cast of plaster of Paris. The cast is attached to outer area of patient’s body. The cast is changed regularly because infants grow briskly.
If a patient has moderate scoliosis and his bones are in a growing stage, surgeons may recommend a brace to prevent further curvature formation. Braces are usually worn all the time, even at night.
There are basically two types of braces:
Scoliosis can progress over time and may become severe. In such cases, doctors may suggest spinal fusion surgery. This surgery minimizes curvature of spine and restricts it from getting worse. Two or more spine bones are fused with new bone grafts. Sometimes, screws, hooks, metal rods or wires are used to hold the spine neat & straight while the bone heals. This surgical procedure lasts from 7 to 8 hours of time. After completion of surgery, the child is transferred to an intensive care unit where they will be given pain relief and intravenous fluids. Children can normally return to school after 5 to 6 weeks, and can play sports roughly one year after surgery. A back brace is needed to support the spine in some cases for about four to six months. The patient will need to return to clinic every 6 months to have these rods lengthened – this is an outpatient method, so the patient does not have to spend the night at hospital. Doctors surgically remove these rods once the spine has grown.
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