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Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatments for Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Lymphatic system is an essential part of immune system that helps our body to stay toxin-free. It consists of white blood cells known as ‘lymphocytes’ that prevent infections and germs from entering our body. Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a dreadful disease that comes in existence due to production of abnormal cancerous lymphocytes in an individual’s body. Patients suffering from Hodgkin’s lymphoma must seek a prompt medical assistance. Otherwise, it may weaken their complete body and lead to life-threatening health issues.

Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatments for Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Signs and Symptoms of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

The following list describes some major signs and symptoms of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

  • Swelling – Patients struggling with an underlying Hodgkin’s lymphoma may experience swelling in their armpit, neck or groin region.
  • Extreme Tiredness – Patients suffering from this disease may feel tiredness or fatigue without any particular reason.
  • Night Sweats and Fever – Frequent episodes of night sweats and fever is the most prominent warning sign associated with Hodgkin’s lymphoma disease.
  • Unexplained Weight Loss – Patients who have undergone a sudden and heavy weight loss should visit an experienced doctor for accurate diagnosis. Such dramatic changes in body may appear due to presence of cancer.
  • Painful Lymph Nodes – Patients who encounter severe pain in their lymph nodes especially after drinking alcohol may be suffering from Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  • Enlarged Spleen – Enlargement of spleen is one of the most common symptoms of underlying Hodgkin’s lymphoma disease. 

Causes and Risk Factors for Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

There are no known causes of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. However, medical experts state that mutation in cell’s DNA may give rise to this disease. In addition to this, the following risk factors may also fuel up the possibility of occurrence of this disease.

  • Age and Gender – This disease most commonly affects people in between 15 to 30 years of age group as well as over age of 55. Men are more prone to developing Hodgkin’s lymphoma as compared to women.
  • HIV Infection – Patients suffering from HIV infection are at greater risk of getting Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  • Medications – Patients who have undergone organ transplantation and consume immunosuppressant medicines have a greater likelihood of getting Hodgkin’s lymphoma as compared to others.
  • Family History of Disease – Patients who have a family history of lymphoma are likely to develop it in future. Such patients must indulge in regular health checkups for ensuring their safety.
  • Being Overweight – Obesity can give rise to a large number of medical issues including Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Therefore, obese or overweight patients should try to maintain a normal weight.
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) – Patients who had previously encountered ailments due to Epstein-Barr virus are at higher risks of getting Hodgkin’s lymphoma. 

Types of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma solely relies on its type and severity. The below-mentioned points give out the two major types of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

  • Classical Hodgkin’s Lymphoma – This category of Hodgkin’s lymphoma accounts for majority of cases. Classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma occurs due to formation of some abnormal cells in lymphatic system that are clinically referred to as ‘Reed-Sternberg’ cells.
  • Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin’s Lymphoma – This type of Hodgkin’s lymphoma is rarely observed in patients. This type of disease occurs due to development of large-sized abnormal cells. These cells are known as ‘popcorn cells’ as they appear similar to popcorn.

Diagnosing Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Patients must reach out to doctors who are well-versed in performing Hodgkin’s lymphoma treatment. During initial meeting, respective oncologists may ask patients regarding the cause of distress. They may further ask regarding their medical history and advise them to undergo the given diagnostic treatments.

  • Physical Evaluation – Doctors may thoroughly evaluate patient’s armpits and neck area in order to see whether they have any abnormal swelling in this region.
  • Blood Tests – Doctors may conduct blood tests for identifying the presence of cancerous cells in patient’s body.
  • Imaging Tests – Patients may be asked to undergo several imaging tests such as computerized tomography test (CT scan), x-rays or magnetic resonance imaging test (MRI scan).
  • Biopsy Test – Biopsy test involves taking a small sample of cells from patient’s bone marrow in order to figure out severe abnormalities.

These diagnostic medical procedures allow doctors to clearly inspect severity of disease and patient’s overall medical status. 

Stages of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

There are four stages of Hodgkin’s lymphoma on the basis of which doctors will outline an appropriate treatment plan.

  • Stage 1 – This is the primary stage where harmful cells are limited to only area of patient’s lymph nodes either above or below diaphragm.
  • Stage 2 – During this stage, cancer may spread to two or more than two lymph nodes on either side of patient’s diaphragm.
  • Stage 3 – This is an advanced stage of Hodgkin’s lymphoma which appears when entire lymph node region including both upper and lower sides of diaphragm gets affected due to cancerous cells.
  • Stage 4 – This is terminal or end stage of Hodgkin’s lymphoma where cancerous cells do not just affect lymph nodes but other body parts as well. Chances of patient’s survival in this stage are extremely less. 

Treatment Options for Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

The given points describe major Hodgkin’s lymphoma treatment options. Respective oncologists choose most befitting treatment plan for providing successful outcomes.

  1. Early Stage Treatment (Stage 1 and Stage 2) – The following treatments are mainly used during stage 1 and 2 of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  • Chemotherapy – This procedure involves use of certain drugs that are capable of destroying abnormal cells present in patient’s body. Doctors mostly refer these drugs to as ‘chemo drugs’. They may ask patients to take them either orally or they may directly inject them into their body.
  • Radiation Therapy – This is a painless yet powerful technique that can be used for wiping out unwanted harmful cells due to presence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma in patient’s body. It involves a device that emits high-intensity radiations which kill the cancerous cells as well as stop the development of new abnormal cells.
  1. Later Stage Treatment (Stage 3 and Stage 4) – Doctors are likely to perform the given treatments for later stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  • Bone Marrow Transplant – Popularly referred to as ‘stem cell transplantation’, bone marrow transplant is latest medical procedure that can effectively destroy cancerous Hodgkin’s lymphoma cells and tissues. During this procedure, respective oncologists take out healthy stem cells from patient’s own body and store it in a sophisticated laboratory for future purpose. Once it is done, they may perform radiation therapy or chemotherapy for killing the undesired cells. When all these treatments are complete, doctors inject the previously stored cells back in patient’s body for improving their health condition. 

Risks and Complications Associated with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Treatment

The following points elaborate some of the major risks and complications associated with Hodgkin’s lymphoma treatment.

  • Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy – Patients may experience problems such as hair loss, diarrhea, persistent nausea, uncontrolled pain, loss of appetite and depression following their radiation therapy or chemotherapy treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  • Bone Marrow Transplant – Patients may get severe infection or encounter issues like mouth sores, anemia, thyroid problems, lung or bone damage, fatigue and another cancer after completion of bone marrow or stem cell transplant procedure.

Patients must discuss each and everything with respective oncologists before taking decision to undergo any type of treatment. They must clear their doubts and ask for possible solutions for minimizing such risks.

Recovery Following Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Treatment

Complete recovery time will depend on patient’s overall health and particular type of Hodgkin’s lymphoma treatment. Patients may be asked to follow a healthy routine and eat a balanced diet following their treatment in order to recover faster. It is quite natural for patients to get depressed and feel alone or unworthy at times. They must spend time with their family and dear ones for overcoming such phase of depression. They may also consult psychologists in order to relieve their emotional baggage and speed up healing process. 

Avail Best Quality Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Treatment in India with IndianMedTrip

IndianMedTrip is one of the leading healthcare tourism facilitators across the globe. Medical consultants at IndianMedTrip are associated with a large network of experienced oncologists and accredited multi-specialty hospitals in India which are renowned for providing best outcomes following Hodgkin’s lymphoma treatment. IndianMedTrip offers free online medical consultation to overseas patients for understanding their health needs and design suitable treatment packages for them. They also assist global patients in availing their medical visas in a smooth manner. On top of this, health experts at IndianMedTrip guide each and every patient throughout their Hodgkin’s lymphoma treatment as well as during their postoperative period even when they fly back to their native countries. Therefore, international patients looking for high-quality Hodgkin’s lymphoma treatment in India can count on such staunch services offered by IndianMedTrip.

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Advanced Laser & Eye Surgeries

Laser-Eye-Surgery-in-GoaLaser eye surgery can effectively correct vision for many people so that they no longer need contact lenses or glasses. Laser eye surgery is designed to reshape cornea or the clear front part of eye so that light travelling through it is properly focused on retina situated in the back portion of eye. This vision correction surgery which is also called refractive & laser eye surgery is a surgical procedure which can also correct a variety of vision problems affecting humans. Tremendous advancements have been made in this field in recent years through which many patients have benefitted & reported seeing better than they ever had at any other point of time in their life. Other vision correction surgeries involve replacing the natural lens of eyes.

Types of Vision Improvement Surgeries

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Refractive & Laser Eye Surgery in Goa

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Affordable Gastric Imbrication Surgery for Weight Loss

Gastric Imbrication Surgery is also known as Gastric Plication Surgery. This is a weight loss laparoscopic procedure which is relatively new & designed for reducing stomach volume with having to remove any tissue. During this weight loss surgery the stomach is folded within itself and subsequently stitched in order to reduce size while creating a narrow tube-shaped stomach which is quite similar to sleeve gastrectomy surgery. However, gastric imbrication surgery does not involve any cutting of stomach tissue which is to be removed. As a result, patients undergoing gastric imbrication surgery will eat less & lose weight as well.

Gastric Imbrication Surgery Procedure

Gastric Imbrication Surgery

Team of doctors & medical professionals led by a bariatric surgeon will perform the gastric imbrication surgery through the laparoscopic method. Laparoscopy will ensure that the procedure will not involve any large abdominal incision, instead the operation is performed through small incisions through which a camera & specially designed operating instruments will be inserted. These laparoscopic instruments will allow the bariatric surgeon perform the gastric imbrication surgery which is precise and causing minimal trauma to the patient’s body. Laparoscopic gastric imbrication surgery will allow the patient undergo less discomfort, reduce risk of surgical complication & chances of quicker recovery at the same time. This weight loss surgery will typically take just about 60 minutes of time when performed by experienced surgeons. However, patients will be fully unconscious & placed under general anesthesia during this operation. While gastric imbrication surgery will work like sleeve gastrectomy and retain functions, it is also reversible as no stomach tissue is removed unlike the traditional sleeve gastrectomy procedure. Moreover, gastric imbrication surgery is as flexible as lap band or stomach band weight loss procedure.

Benefits of Gastric Imbrication Surgery

Primary benefit of minimally invasive laparoscopic gastric imbrication surgery is that it can also be performed as an outpatient weight loss procedure which will result in lesser pain, lesser loss of blood along with shorter time for recovery as well. Secondly, gastric plication surgery does not remove any stomach tissue and uses plastic sutures and which makes it possible to reverse the procedure. Lastly, gastric imbrication surgery does not require implanting any medical weight loss device in abdomen, but when it is combined with adjustable gastric band surgery will result in more weight loss than when it is applied alone.

Laparoscopic Gastric Imbrication Surgery with Adjustable Gastric Band

Adjustable gastric band is one of the safest and most effective weight loss surgery procedures offered nowadays. This procedure involves laparoscopically placing an adjustable gastric band around the top portion of stomach. Adjustable gastric band procedure is also reversible and can be easily customized for patients desiring weight loss according to their individual requirements. Some adjustable gastric band patients experience slower weight loss than expected and therefore opt for some other weight loss procedure to go with it. Adding laparoscopic gastric imbrication surgery with adjustable gastric band generally enhances the patient’s weight loss experience. Adding them together require fewer adjustments than just undergoing gastric band alone. Moreover, the patient may also be able to lose more weight in less time than these procedures could have done alone.

Benefits of Lap Band with Gastric Imbrication Surgery

Both these weight loss procedures are minimally invasive in nature nor requiring any cutting or stapling of stomach or re-routing intestines, fewer adjustments are also required in combination than it were with lap band surgery alone. Along with lap band, bariatric surgeons would also reduce 60 – 70 percent of the stomach by sewing it in folds. This way in combination they are much more effective for weight loss than lap band surgery alone. Moreover, gastric imbrication surgery is potentially a good option for obese patients who are not ideal candidates for other bariatric weight loss procedures because of their medical or surgical history. Low risk of complications when compared to other weight loss procedures coupled with encouraging outcomes has made gastric imbrication surgery a favorite choice of both the patients and bariatric surgeons.

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IndianMedTrip is closely associated with top bariatric surgeons & the best accredited hospital facilities performing weight loss surgery in the country. International patients who are seeking good quality of weight loss procedures like gastric imbrication surgery at affordable costs can benefit by undergoing procedures in India. Overseas patients can in fact save substantial amounts of money by undergoing medical procedures here. Seamless services offered by IndianMedTrip include assisting patients in obtaining medical visas, warm reception at the airport on arrival, local transportation, accommodations as per patient’s requests near the treatment facility, scheduling appointments for treatment sessions, follow-up evaluation checks and an affectionate farewell when patients head back home following successful and satisfactory outcomes.

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