Trauma & orthopedics is basically an area of surgery which is concerned with injuries & conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system involving the nerves, muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints & bones. Most cases of bone fractures, deformity of spine & limbs or long-term conditions like Osteoporosis developing over many years are referred to trauma & orthopedic experts for treatment. Orthopedic specialists treat people belonging to all ages including children & newborns with deformities like scoliosis, clubfoot & Hip dysplasia. Specialists in orthopedic surgery also treat young people needing joint preserving surgery like osteotomy or arthroscopic surgery & older people grappling with irreversible degenerative joint problems requiring joint replacement surgeries.
Consultants working in trauma & orthopedic departments provide emergency & non-emergency care for patients with musculoskeletal injuries following initial assessment in cases of emergency & accidents. Services provided by orthopedic specialists include diagnosing injuries or disorders by using blood tests, X-rays & other investigative methods. Treatment of injuries & other conditions include medication and/or surgery. Specialists may also often recommend physiotherapy or exercises so as to restore functionality, strength & movement. Several orthopedic experts also develop specialist interests covering particular orthopedic conditions, specific areas of the body like upper extremities, lower extremities or spine or devoted fields like pediatrics or sports injury.
Some Common Orthopedic Diseases
There are many in fact, but to name a few, here are the 3 most common of all of them.
- Osteoarthritis – This is a condition which causes joints to become stiff & painful. It is one of the most common types of arthritis for people from all around the world. Severity of osteoarthritis symptoms greatly vary from one person to another & between different joints affected by this disease. Osteoarthritis symptoms for some people may be mild & may randomly come & go while others can experience continuous & severe problems. Almost every joint within the body can be affected by osteoarthritis, but most often they cause problems within hips, knees & small joints of hands. Stiffness & pain in joints with osteoporosis can often cause difficulty in performing everyday activities.
- Clubfoot – Congenital Talipes Equinovarus is the medical name for clubfoot. It is deformity of the foot & ankle which babies are born with. Function & position of foot can be greatly improved if clubfoot is treated in early stages. Feet of babies born with clubfoot point down & inwards with soles facing backwards. Although clubfoot is not painful for babies but can eventually become as they grow older & cause difficulty during walking if not treated earlier. Relatively common & affecting around one baby in every 1,000, both feet are normally affected in around half of the children born with this condition.
- Scoliosis – Abnormal twisting involving curvature of spine is known as scoliosis. Usually noticed by change in appearance of back, young people with Spinal Scoliosis may also often experience some amount of discomfort but which is less likely to be severe.
Typical Signs of Scoliosis Include
- Back pain which is common in adults.
- Visibly curved spine.
- One shoulder that is higher than the other.
- One hip or shoulder which is more prominent than the other.
- Clothes do not properly hang.
- Visibly prominent ribcage.
- Difference in leg lengths.
Types of Orthopedic Operations
Some of the most common types of orthopedic operations carried out by patients are listed below.
- Repairing Fractured Bone – This can generally involve broken wrists or arms, broken ankles, broken collarbone, broken hips, broken legs & broken ribs.
- Arthroscopy – This is a minimally invasive keyhole technique whereby tools are inserted into joints so as to diagnose & repair joint tissues which are damaged including cartilage damage.
- General Repairs – This includes repair of torn ligaments, torn tendons & damaged muscles.
- Arthroplasty – This is a surgical procedure which is normally used to resurface or replace joints diseased due to arthritis. Hip replacement surgery & knee replacement surgery are the two most widely used & highly affective surgical operations.
- Hip Joint Replacement Surgery – Hip is the largest joint within the human body & which is also known as “ball & socket joint”. Bones are connected to each other with bands of tissue called ligaments in a healthy hip joint. Surrounded by tissue called cartilage which is designed to help & support joints in order to prevent bones rubbing each other, ligaments are also lubricated with fluid so as to reduce friction. Main purpose of hip joint is to support upper body while running, walking & standing & to help certain movements like stretching & bending. It might therefore be necessary for some people to undergo hip replacement surgery in one or both hip joints in case they have become damaged & cause persistent problems or pain with everyday activities like driving, walking & getting dressed.
- Knee Joint Replacement Surgery – This variety of arthroplasty involves replacing diseased, damaged or worn-out knees with an artificial joint. Knee joint replacement surgery is a routine operation for knee pain which is most commonly caused due to arthritis. A large & rising number of knee replacement surgeries are carried out every year all around the globe mostly for people over 65 years of age. Most Knee replacement surgery last for over 20 years, especially when they are properly cared & not subjected to undue strain.
- Surgery to Correct Bone Deformities – This set of procedures are designed to correct deformities of limbs or spine which either limit functions or cause long-term problems in case they are left untreated. Most common examples of this type of procedures include Osteotomy used to correct bony malalignments so as to help prevent degeneration of adjacent joints & Fusion Surgery where bones are welded together in order to heal as a single solid bone.
Orthopedic Surgery in India
Goa in India is an excellent global healthcare destination for international patients seeking affordable medical solutions including orthopedic surgeries. Thousands of people from all around the world come to Goa every year to undergo high-quality yet low-cost orthopedic treatments like hip replacement & knee replacement surgeries. IndianMedTrip is the fastest growing medical tourism company in South Asia offering a wide spectrum of treatment options for foreign tourists who throng at Goa for holidays. Associated with top orthopedic surgeons & best accredited hospitals in the country, IndianMedTrip services begin with the initial telephonic conversation followed by successful treatment, recuperation & warm farewell.